The Legal Authority of the Sunnah of the Messenger

Reference: “Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat” (vol. 1/pg. 215-219) quoted from “Tuhfatul-Muslim” (pg. 20-22)

Ahmad, Aboo Daawood and al-Haakim have all collected with an authentic isnaad the narration of Miqdaam Ibn Ma’deekarib, who reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

«Indeed, I have been given the Book [the Qur’aan] and the likes of it along with it. Indeed, there will certainly come a time in which there will be a man who’s belly is full reclining on his raised couch saying, ‘Only adhere to this Qur’aan, whatever you find therein that is lawful then deem it to be lawful and whatever you find therein to be unlawful then deem it to be unlawful.’»

Ibn Abee Raafi’ narrated from his father who reported that, the Prophet (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

«I should not find any of you reclining upon his raised couch and a command or prohibition that I have made comes to him and he replies, ‘We don’t know about this! Whatever we find in the Book of Allaah we will follow.’»

Narrated Hasan Ibn Jaabir: ‘I heard al-Miqdaam Ibn Ma’deekarib, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, saying: ‘The Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) declared several things to be unlawful on the day of the Battle of Khaybar and said:

«There will certainly come the time in which one of you will belie me while reclining upon his raised couch, and a hadeeth that I stated is being narrated to him and he says, ‘Between us and you is the Book of Allaah. So whatever we find therein which is lawful we will deem it to be lawful and whatever we find therein to be unlawful we will deem it to be unlawful’. Surely, that which the Messenger of Allaah has declared to be unlawful is the exact same as what Allaah has made unlawful.»

The ahaadeeth [pl. of hadeeth] stating that the Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to counsel his companions in his sermons and order those who were present to convey to those who were absent and say:

«Perhaps the one who receives the message could comprehend more than the one who actually heard it.», have been reported by mass narration.

Similarly, regarding this affair is the hadeeth that is collected in the two authentic books [of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim] that reads: When the Prophet (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) delivered his sermon to the people during the farewell Hajj on the day of ‘Arafah and sacrificial slaughter he said:

«Let the one who is present convey to the one who is absent, since the one who is conveyed unto could possibly comprehend better than the one who heard it directly from me.»

So if his Sunnah wasn’t a legal proof upon those who hear it and upon those whom it reaches, and if it wouldn’t remain preserved until the Day of Judgment, he would not have commanded that it be delivered and conveyed. Conversely, with this point we come to know the reality that the Sunnah is a legal proof, by itself, upon those who hear it from his noble mouth, may prayers and peace be upon him, and upon those whom it reaches via the authentic chains of narration.

Al-Bayhaqi has collected the narration of the noble taabi’ee [Singular of Taabi’oon], Ayoob as-Sakhtiyaani that reads, “When you narrate the Sunnah to a man and he says, ‘Leave us be with regards to this, instead tell us about the Qur’aan’, then know for sure that he is misguided.” Said, al-Auzaa’iee, may Allaah have mercy on him, “The Sunnah is in authority over the Qur’aan.” Meaning that it [the Sunnah] restricts that which is unrestricted in the Qur’aan, and or by laying down rulings that are not mentioned in the Qur’aan, just as Allaah, the Exalted, has stated:

{And We have also sent down unto you the Dhikr that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought.} [Soorah an-Nahl (16): 44]

And just we have already mentioned the statement of his (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam):

«Indeed, I have been granted the Book and the likes of it along with it.»

Al-Bayhaqi has also reported that ‘Aamir ash-Sha’bee, rahimahullaah, said to some people once: “You have only become destroyed and ruined once you left off the aathar.” In other words, the authentic ahaadeeth.

حجية السنة

المرجع: مجموع فتاوى ومقالات متنوعة – 1/215-219

خرج أحمد وأبو داود والحاكم بإسناد صحيح عن المقدام بن معدي كرب , عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: « ألا إني أوتيت الكتاب ومثله معه ألا يوشك رجل شبعان على أريكته يقول : عليكم بهذا القرآن فما وجدتم فيه من حلال فأحلوه وما وجدتم فيه من حرام فحرموه ».

وخرج أبو داود وابن ماجه بسند صحيح: عن ابن أبي رافع عن أبيه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: « لا ألفين أحدكم متكئا على أريكته يأتيه الأمر من أمري مما أمرت به أو نهيت عنه فيقول لا ندري ما وجدنا في كتاب الله اتبعناه » . وعن الحسن بن جابر قال: سمعت المقدام بن معدي كرب رضي الله عنه يقول: « حرم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم خيبر أشياء ثم قال : يوشك أحدكم أن يكذبني وهو متكئ يحدث بحديثي فيقول بيننا وبينكم كتاب الله فما وجدنا فيه من حلال استحللناه وما وجدنا فيه من حرام حرمناه ألا إن ما حرم رسول الله مثل ما حرم الله » أخرجه الحاكم والترمذي وابن ماجه بإسناد صحيح. وقد تواترت الأحاديث عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بأنه كان يوصي أصحابه في خطبته, أن يبلغ شاهدهم غائبهم، ويقول لهم: « رب مبلغ أوعى من سامع » ومن ذلك ما في الصحيحين أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما خطب الناس في حجة الوداع في يوم عرفة وفي يوم النحر قال لهم: « فليبلغ الشاهد الغائب فرب من يبلغه أوعى له ممن سمعه » فلولا أن سنته حجة على من سمعها وعلى من بلغته, ولولا أنها باقية إلى يوم القيامة, لم يأمرهم بتبليغها, فعلم بذلك أن الحجة بالسنة قائمة على من سمعها من فيه عليه الصلاة والسلام وعلى من نقلت إليه بالأسانيد الصحيحة.

وأخرج البيهقي عن أيوب السختياني التابعي الجليل, أنه قال: إذا حدثت الرجل بسنة فقال: دعنا من هذا وأنبئنا عن القرآن فاعلم أنه ضال.

وقال الأوزاعي رحمه الله: السنة قاضية على الكتاب, أي تقيد ما أطلقه, أو بأحكام لم تذكر في الكتاب, كما في قول الله سبحانه: { وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ}.

وسبق قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم: « ألا إني أوتيت الكتاب ومثله معه » وأخرج البيهقي عن عامر الشعبي رحمه الله أنه قال لبعض الناس: (إنما هلكتم في حين تركتم الآثار) يعني بذلك الأحاديث الصحيحة.

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