In Defence of the Prophet: {Verily, you are of an exalted standard of character}

Reference: Tayseer Al-Kareem Al-Rahman fee Tafseer Kalaam Al Mannaan (Tafseer Al-Sa’adi) [15: 95-99]

Allah the most High says, the meaning of which is:

{Noon. None but Allah (Alone) knows their meanings. By the pen and what the (angels) write (in the Records of men). You (O Muhammad) are not, by the Grace of your Lord, a madman. And verily, for you (O Muhammad) will be an endless reward. And verily, you (O Muhammad) are on an exalted standard of character.

You will see, and they will see, Which of you is afflicted with madness. Verily, your Lord knows better, who (among men) has gone astray from His Path, and He knows better those who are guided} [68:1-7]

Allah the Most High takes an oath by the pen, which is a generic noun that encompasses all pens that are used to write the different types of sciences and are also used to compose poetry as well as prose. This (oath was taken) because the pen and the types of speech it can compose are one of the greatest signs of Allah. (These signs) are deserving of Allah’s oath which he took to clarify the innocence of the Prophet Muhammad – May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – from that which his enemies have attributed to him such as insanity.

From the favors of his Lord [upon the Prophet] and His benevolence [towards him] is that he negated insanity from him and bestowed upon him complete intellect, sound judgment and a conciseness’ in speech which is the best speech pens can write and humans can compose. This is [a cause] of happiness [for him] in this life.

Then Allah mentioned his (cause of) happiness in the next, He said:

{Verily for you (O Muhammad) will be a reward} that is great, as the indefinite noun suggests

{most endless} i.e. [a reward that will] never cease, in fact it will be forever continuous and everlasting, and this (reward) is due to the Prophet’s righteous actions and complete character which were bestowed upon him (by Allah), that is why He (Allah) said:

{Verily, you (O Muhammad ) are on an exalted standard of character} i.e. exalted and raised because of it, superior (to all others) as a result of your lofty character which Allah has bestowed upon you.

A brief summary of his great character is the explanation (and answer) of the mother of the believers Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) to the one who asked her about his character, so she said: “His character was the Quran.”

An example of this (character) is the statement of the Most High:

{Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the foolish (i.e. don’t punish them)} [7:199]

{And by the Mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently} [3:159]

{Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad ) from amongst yourselves (i.e. whom you know well). It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He (Muhammad ) is anxious over you (to be rightly guided, to repent to Allah, and beg Him to pardon and forgive your sins, in order that you may enter Paradise and be saved from the punishment of the Hell-fire), for the believers (he is) full of pity, kind, and merciful} [9:128]

And other similar verses that illustrate his attributes and noble character – may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him –

Likewise verses that discuss his great character and he had the most complete and exalted of qualities. Moreover, he was in every single characteristic at the highest pinnacle. He was – may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – simple, uncomplicated and gentle, he was close to the people. He would accept invitations when invited; fulfill the needs of anyone who requested his assistance. He would comfort and console the heart of whoever asked him for alms, not denying him or disappointing him, and if his companions wanted his agreement on a matter, he would agree and concur with them as long as it was not impermissible.

In addition, if he decided on a matter he would not impose his opinion on them without first seeking theirs, rather he would consult and instruct them accordingly. He would appreciate and accept the benevolence and goodness of his companions towards him as well as forgiving anyone who insulted him.

He would not treat anyone who accompanied and befriended him except with the best and most complete companionship, so he would never frown in the face (of his companion). In addition, he would never be harsh in his speech. Moreover. He would never conceal his smile from his companion and he would never reprimand him because of an unexpected slip of his tongue as well as not criticizing him if any harshness emanated from him. In fact he would be kind to his companion (treating him) with the best and most complete of manners. He would tolerate him with complete fortitude may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

So when Allah stationed him in the highest of stations in every respect and his enemies accused him of being insane and afflicted with madness He said:

{You will see, and they will see, Which of you is afflicted with madness} It has become apparent that he is the most guided of people, furthermore, he is the most complete and faultless (of people). As well as being perfect and complete himself he has also perfected (the characters of) others. (It has also become apparent) that his enemies are the most misguided and evil of people who lead other people astray. In addition, they are the ones who put to trial Allah’s slaves and (they are the ones who) misguided them from Allah’s path.

[More importantly] Allah’s knowledge about this is sufficient for He is the One who recompenses and punishes and:

{He knows better, who (among men has gone astray from His Path, and He knows better those who are guided} and that is a warning to those who are astray and a promise to the rightly guided, as well as being a clarification of the wisdom of Allah as He guides whomsoever is deserving and befitting of (His) guidance.

دفاعا عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ

المرجع: تيسير الكريم الرحمن في تفسير كلام المنان – تفسير السعدي

قال الله تعالى:

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ ن وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ * مَا أَنْتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ * وَإِنَّ لَكَ لأجْرًا غَيْرَ مَمْنُونٍ * وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ * فَسَتُبْصِرُ وَيُبْصِرُونَ * بِأَيِّيكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ * إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ}

يقسم تعالى بالقلم، وهو اسم جنس شامل للأقلام، التي تكتب بها [أنواع] العلوم، ويسطر بها المنثور والمنظوم، وذلك أن القلم وما يسطرون به من أنواع الكلام، من آيات الله العظيمة، التي تستحق أن يقسم الله بها، على [ ص 879 ] براءة نبيه محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، مما نسبه إليه أعداؤه من الجنون فنفى عنه الجنون (1) بنعمة ربه عليه وإحسانه، حيث من عليه بالعقل الكامل، والرأي الجزل، والكلام الفصل، الذي هو أحسن ما جرت به الأقلام، وسطره الأنام، وهذا هو السعادة في الدنيا، ثم ذكر سعادته في الآخرة، فقال:

{وَإِنَّ لَكَ لأجْرًا} أي: عظيمًا، كما يفيده التنكير،

{غير ممنون} أي: [غير] مقطوع، بل هو دائم مستمر، وذلك لما أسلفه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من الأعمال الصالحة، والأخلاق الكاملة، ولهذا قال:

{وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ} أي: عاليًا به، مستعليًا بخلقك الذي من الله عليك به، وحاصل خلقه العظيم، ما فسرته به أم المؤمنين، [عائشة -رضي الله عنها-] لمن سألها عنه، فقالت: “كان خلقه القرآن”، وذلك نحو قوله تعالى له:

{خُذِ الْعَفْوَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْعُرْفِ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْجَاهِلِينَ}

{فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ } [الآية]

{لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيُصُ عَلَيْكُم بِالمْؤُمِنِينَ رَؤُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ}

وما أشبه ذلك من الآيات الدالات على اتصافه صلى الله عليه وسلم بمكارم الأخلاق، [والآيات] الحاثات على الخلق العظيم  فكان له منها أكملها وأجلها، وهو في كل خصلة منها، في الذروة العليا، فكان صلى الله عليه وسلم سهلا لينا، قريبًا من الناس، مجيبًا لدعوة من دعاه، قاضيًا لحاجة من استقضاه، جابرًا لقلب من سأله، لا يحرمه، ولا يرده خائبًا، وإذا أراد أصحابه منه أمرًا وافقهم عليه، وتابعهم فيه إذا لم يكن فيه محذور، وإن عزم على أمر لم يستبد به دونهم، بل يشاورهم ويؤامرهم، وكان يقبل من محسنهم، ويعفو عن مسيئهم، ولم يكن يعاشر جليسًا له إلا أتم عشرة وأحسنها، فكان لا يعبس في وجهه، ولا يغلظ عليه في مقاله، ولا يطوي عنه بشره، ولا يمسك عليه فلتات لسانه، ولا يؤاخذه بما يصدر منه من جفوة، بل يحسن إلى عشيره غاية الإحسان، ويحتمله غاية الاحتمال صلى الله عليه وسلم.

فلما أنزله الله في أعلى المنازل من جميع الوجوه، وكان أعداؤه ينسبون إليه أنه مجنون مفتون قال:

{فَسَتُبْصِرُ وَيُبْصِرُونَ بِأَيِّيكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ} وقد تبين أنه أهدى الناس، وأكملهم لنفسه ولغيره، وأن أعداءه أضل الناس، [وشر الناس]  للناس، وأنهم هم الذين فتنوا عباد الله، وأضلوهم عن سبيله، وكفى بعلم الله بذلك، فإنه هو المحاسب المجازي.

{هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ} وهذا فيه تهديد للضالين، ووعد للمهتدين، وبيان لحكمة الله، حيث كان يهدي من يصلح للهداية، دون غيره.

- from Manchester, UK. He is a graduate of the Islaamic University of Madeenah, having graduated from the Institute of Arabic Language, the Faculty of Sharee'ah, and Masters in 'Aqeedah; He is currently pursuing his PhD in 'Aqeedah.

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